In the news…

Here is a list of the more than 40 articles, papers, videos, masters and PhD thesis work (not all represented here) made around the usage of the former “GBK-Pacer” and the newer “Pacer2Swim” pacing equipment around the world, which attests for our pacers’ usability and usefulness in research and workout, as well as for their extraordinary longevity. It should be pointed out that several foreign swimming students and swimming professors came to Portugal to be able to use our pacers since 2001. To get a glimpse of all the history about this early patentable technology that appeared long before many other patents were made, as well as quite heavily differing from them in terms of the already then very advanced details envisioned by us, click here.

 

Date: 2013 (“Pacer2Swim“)
Title: Oximetry-based bioenergetic and biomechanic swimmer evaluation with a visual pacer, fixed swimming and speedometry
http://www.nowhere.com (direct PDF)

 

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Different VO2max Time-Averaging Intervals in Swimming
Abstract:
We aimed to determine the effect of sampling interval strategy on VO2max assessment to establish a standard time averaging method that allows a better identification of the VO2 plateau incidence in swimming…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22791619 (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Is the New AquaTrainer® Snorkel Valid for VO2 Assessment in Swimming?
Abstract:
The Cosmed AquaTrainer® snorkel, in connection with the K4b2 analyzer, is the most recent instrument used for real time gas analysis during swimming. This study aimed to test if a new AquaTrainer® snorkel with 2 (SV2) or 4 (SV4) valves is comparable to a standard face mask…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23041962 (direct PDF)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnXWjS_-sWU (direct VIDEO)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xi4fmRvGQQs (direct VIDEO)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Relation between efficiency and energy cost with coordination in aquatic locomotion
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the intracycle velocity variation (IVV) and Froude efficiency (ηT), energy cost (C), and index of coordination (IdC) throughout a 200-m freestyle race…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22903863 (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Kinematics of the hip and body center of mass in front crawl
Abstract: 
The kinematic profiles of the hip and center of mass in front crawl swimming were compared to quantify the error of using a fixed body point to assess intracyclic velocity variations at moderate intensity exercise. The practical goal was to provide a useful tool, easy and fast to assess, and to use as feedback, for assessing swimming efficiency…
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=kinematics%20of%20the%20hip%20and%20body%20center%20of%20mass%20in%20front%20crawl&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.degruyter.com%2Fdg%2Fviewarticle.fullcontentlink%3Apdfeventlink%2FcontentUri%3Ft%3Aac%3Dj%24002fhukin.2012.33.issue–1%24002fv10078-012-0040-6%24002fv10078-012-0040-6.xml&ei=DIf8UJuEA4O1hAfhmoHwCg&usg=AFQjCNEyaMPqy32q3-ZiTnjk9E1pDofDoQ&bvm=bv.41248874,d.d2k (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Energy cost and body centre of mass’ 3D intracycle velocity variation in swimming
Abstract: 
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the energy cost (C) and the 3D intracycle velocity variation (IVV; swimming direction–x, vertical–y and lateral–z axes) throughout the 200 m front crawl event…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22262010 (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Comparação e caracterização da resposta cardiorrespiratória e metabólica de praticantes de natação
Abstract: 
The aim of the present dissertation was to compare and characterize the cardiorespiratory, metabolic and biomechanical response between recreation swimmers and competitive swimmers…
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/7664/1/Disserta%C3%A7%C3%A3o_Jean%20Mejias.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Analysis of the determinant kinematical parameters for performance in the 200-m freestyle swimming event
Abstract: 
The main aims of this study were i) to perform a kinematic characterization of sub and maximal swimming speed; ii) to investigate the associations between the kinematic profiles and the 200 m front crawl style.
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/motriz/v18n2/v18n2a17.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Anthropometrical, energetical and biomechanical contribution for the elite swimming performance during the peak form period during the summer season
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of several anthropometrical, bioenergetical and biomechanical parameters for the 200 m front crawl performance (Perf200m) during the peak form of the summer season…
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=Contributo%20dos%20factores%20antropom%C3%A9tricos%2C%20bioenerg%C3%A9ticos%20e%20biomec%C3%A2nicos%20para%20a%20performance%20de%20nadadores%20de%20elite%20no%20pico%20de%20forma%20na%20%C3%A9poca%20de%20ver%C3%A3o&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CE8QFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fredalyc.uaemex.mx%2Fsrc%2Finicio%2FForazarDescargaArchivo.jsp%3FcvRev%3D2730%26cvArt%3D273023636006%26nombre%3DContributo%2520dos%2520factores%2520antropom%25E9tricos%2C%2520bioenerg%25E9ticos%2520e%2520biomec%25E2nicos%2520para%2520a%2520performance%2520de%2520nadadores%2520de%2520elite%2520no%2520pico%2520de%2520forma%2520na%2520%25E9poca%2520de%2520ver%25E3o&ei=pBb9UIfDN8LMhAfOmYCQBw&usg=AFQjCNHGb01x-2yhxj9-SLBSVm2rbf2JrQ&bvm=bv.41248874,d.ZG4 (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2012 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Bioenergetics Applied to Swimming: An Ecological Method to Monitor and Prescribe Training
Abstract: 
Systematic assessments of athletes’ physiological conditions are central to monitor and prescribe swimming training according to the needs and goals. Thus, it is possible to understand the current physiological state and follow its development in order to assess the effects of training, to identify the swimmer’s skills profile and to predict athletic performance (Vilas-Boas & Lamares 1997).
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/30410/InTech-Bioenergetics_applied_to_swimming_an_ecological_method_to_monitor_and_prescribe_training.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2011 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Step Length and Individual Anaerobic Threshold Assessment in swimming
Abstract: 
Anaerobic threshold is widely used for diagnosis of swimming aerobic endurance but the precise incremental protocols step duration for its assessment is controversial. A physiological and biomechanical comparison between intermittent incremental protocols with different step lengths and a maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) test was conducted…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052025 (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2011 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: ANÁLISE LONGITUDINAL DAS MODIFICAÇÕES NO PERFIL BIOMECÂNICO DE NADADORES DE ELITE E O SEU IMPACTO NA PERFORMANCE AO LONGO DA ÉPOCA DESPORTIVA
Abstract: 
O estudo teve como objectivo analisar as modificações nos pressupostos biomecânicos de nadadores de elite e o seu impacto na performance ao longo de uma época desportiva…
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/3693/1/ID971.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2011 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Serão os nadadores de elite do século XXI mais económicos que os do século XX?
Abstract:
O objectivo deste estudo foi: (i) avaliar e comparar o dispêndio energético total entre as quatro técnicas de nado formal em nadadores de elite portugueses e; (ii) comparar a evolução da economia de nado das quatro técnicas de nado formal ao longo das últimas décadas…
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/4035/1/CLDom5.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2011 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Effects of Swim Training on Energetics and Performance
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of several months of training on performance and energetic profile of elite swimmers…
https://www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/pdf/10.1055/s-0032-1327573.pdf (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2010 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title:  An energy balance of the 200 m front crawl race
Abstract: 
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of the aerobic (Aer), anaerobic lactic (AnL) and alactic (AnAl) energy sources during each of the four laps of a 200 m front crawl race. Additionally, energy cost (C) and arm stroke efficiency were also computed. Ten international swimmers performed a 200 m front crawl swim, as well as 50, 100, and 150 m at the 200 m pace. Oxygen consumption was measured during the 200 m swim and blood samples were collected before and after each swim…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978781 (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2010 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Observación de la estabilidad del comportamiento técnico en una prueba de 200 metros mariposa en natación. Estudio preliminar
Abstract: 
The aim was to find swimming patterns in butterfly technique in a distance of 200 meters, based on observation system of behavior…
http://www.efdeportes.com/efd151/estabilidade-numa-prova-de-200-metros-mariposa.htm (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2009 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Oxygen uptake kinetics in swimming: New findings
Abstract: 
Understanding the principal determinants of oxygen (VO2) uptake kinetics is fundamental to improve human performance in sport. Indeed, there are some swimming related studies that focus on the relationship of the VO2 response at different constant work-rate exercises (e.g. moderate, heavy and severe intensities) and swimmer’s performance…
http://www.jssm.org/suppls/11/Suppl.11.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2009 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: GBK-Pacer 2 : cadenciador para desporto individual de alta competição
Abstract: 
O projecto “GBK-Pacer2” consiste na elaboração de um cadenciador (pacer) para atletas de alta competição, tendo como base o melhoramento do cadenciador já existente GBK-Pacer, adaptado com novas tecnologias então desenvolvidas
http://ria.ua.pt/bitstream/10773/2149/1/2010001129.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2008 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Predicting the intra-cyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass from segmental velocities in butterfly stroke: a pilot study

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement of the center of mass (dV), the hand’s and feet’s velocity, as well as, to identify the variables that most predict the dV’s, in butterfly stroke…
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Predicting+the+intra-cyclic+variation+of+the+velocity+of+the+centre…-a0180029914 (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2008 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1″)
Title:
The influence of stroke mechanics into energy cost of elite swimmers
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between energy cost (C), swimming velocity (v), stroke frequency (SF) and stroke length (SL) in top-level swimmers…
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-008-0676-z (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2008 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1″)
Title: Time Limit at VO2max Velocity in Elite Crawl Swimmers

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to assess, with elite crawl swimmers, the time limit at the minimum velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption…
http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/13515/2/61.pdf (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2008 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1″)
Title: RESPOSTA VENTILATÓRIA DURANTE A PROVA DE 100M BRUÇOS E SUA ASSOCIAÇÃO COM A PRESTAÇÃO
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to characterize the energetic cost of 100m breastroke and determine the relationship among several energetic indicators and thje mean swimming velocity (performance)…
http://repositorio.utad.pt/bitstream/10348/152/1/msc_asmarinho.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2008 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Relationship Between Energy Cost and the Index Of Coordination in Front Crawl – A Pilot Study
Abstract: 
Swimming is individual, closed and cyclic sport where both bioenergetic and biomechanical factors seem to have great relevance. The method of technical analysis recently introduced by Chollet et al…
http://www.fina.org/H2O/docs/sportsmed/congress/manchester2008/Scientific%20Sessions/session4_morais.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2007 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1″)
Title: SWIMMING BIOENERGETICS: INTEGRATING BIOMECHANICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA INTO A COHERENT BIOPHYSICAL MODEL FOR PERFORMANCE AND TRAINING
Abstract: 
The purpose of the present paper is to synthesise a number of scientific contributions of our research group, into a coherent corpus of knowledge related to swimming biophysics, specially centred on the availability and use of energy in swimming.
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/4164/1/Vilas-BoasGranada2007Final.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2007 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1″)
Title: PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSIS IN SWIMMING
Abstract: 
The purpose of this presentation is to synthesize the most recent contributions of our research group in the domain of bioenergetic evaluation of the swimming strokes…
http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/Khaled/3/PERFORMANCE%20DIAGNOSIS%20IN%20SWIMMING.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: The behaviour of kinematic parameters during a time to exhaustion test at VO2max in elite swimmers
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to analyse, in swimming pool conditions, the behaviour of kinematic parameters – stroke rate (SR), stroke length SL) and stroke index (SI) – during a time to exhaustion test performed at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen uptake (TLim-VO2max) in elite freestyle swimmers…)
http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/6963/2/201.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Does net energy cost of swimming affect time to exhaustion at the individual’s maximal oxygen consumption velocity?
Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between time limit at the minimum velocity that elicits the individual’s maximal oxygen consumption…
http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/6938/2/161.pdf (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: BREATHING FREQUENCY ALONG THE 400 M FREE STYLE: ASSOCIATION WITH PRATICE
Abstract: The aims of the present study were: i) to assess ventilator and metabolic variables during a 400m crawl event; ii) to assess the relative contribution of aerobic and anaerobic energy during the event; iii) to investigate the associations between the performance and ventilator and metabolic variables…
http://www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt/pdf/mot/v4n1/v4n1a08.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Evaluation of the energy expenditure in competitive swimming strokes
Abstract: 
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the total energy expenditure of the four competitive swimming strokes…
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/4023/3/IJSM-11-2006-Barbosaresumo.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Is time limit at the minimum swimming velocity of VO2 max influenced by stroking parameters?
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to observe the relationship between time limit at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption (TLim-v VO2 max) and stroke rate, stroke length, and stroke index…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17037644 (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENERGY COST, SWIMMING VELOCITY AND SPEED FLUCTUATION IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMING STROKES
Abstract: 
The purpose of the study was to analyse relationships between total energy expenditure (Etot), energy cost (EC), intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement of centre of mass (dv) and mean swimming velocity (v).
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/4128/1/BMS%202006%202.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Xth International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming
Abstract:
Various articles containing the “GBK-Pacer”…
(direct PDF)

 

Date: 2006 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Swimming Phisiology and Biochemistry
Abstract: Various articles containing the “GBK-Pacer”…
(direct PDF)

 

Date: 2005 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Energy cost and intracyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass in butterfly stroke

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement (dV) and the energy cost (EC) in butterfly stroke…
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-004-1251-x (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2005 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Relationships Between Energetic, Stroke Determinants, and Velocity in Butterfly
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the bioenergetical and the biomechanical variables (stroke parameters), through a range of swimming velocities, in butterfly stroke.
http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/15341/2/1701.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2005 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Has gender any effect on the relationship between time limit at VO2 max velocity and swimming economy?
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gender on the relationship between time limit at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption…
http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/6939/2/181.pdf (direct PDF abstract)

 

Date: 2005 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Bioenergetical and biomechanical characterisation of butterfly stroke
Abstract: 
The Biophysical study of swimming is one of the major interests of the sport sciences investigators. However, there is a lack of investigation trying to understand the relationships established between the bioenergetical and biomechanical variables, especially in butterfly stroke. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to conduct a bioenergetical and biomechanical characterizations of the butterfly stroke, understanding the relationships established between those two domains…
https://bibliotecadigital.ipb.pt/bitstream/10198/4087/1/phd-%20Tiago%20Barbosa.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2005 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Reproducibility of Performance in Three Types of Training Test in Swimming
Abstract: 
A variety of testing procedures are used to assess the effects of particular treatments on the training status of athletes. The present study aims to investigate the reproducibility of selected tests in swimming…
http://www.sportexperts.org/publication/pdf14.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2005 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Concepção, desenvolvimento e avaliação de um sistema de “biofeedback” para o treino da técnica em nadadores
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop, validate and evaluate a biofeedback system for the technical training in breaststroke swimming…
http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/14236/2/4722.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2004 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: TIME LIMIT AT THE MINIMUM VELOCITY OF VO2MAX AND INTRACYCLIC VARIATION OF THE VELOCITY OF THE CENTRE OF MASS

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between time limit at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption (TLim-vVO2max) and intra-cyclic variations of the velocity of the centre of mass (dv) in the four competitive swimming techniques…
http://www.fade.up.pt/rpcd/_arquivo/artigos_soltos/vol.6_supl.2/03.bioenergetics.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2004 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Changes in Physiological and Stroke Parameters During a Maximal 400-m Free Swimming Test in Elite Swimmers
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to analyse the variations of the metabolic and technical parameters during a maximal 400-m freestyle event…
http://www.insermu902.fr/attachments/078_69.2004-Laffite-Changes_in_physiological_stroke_parameters-CJAP.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2004 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: COMPORTAMENTO DOS PARÂMETROS BIOMECÂNICOS GERAIS DURANTE UM TESTE DE TEMPO LIMITE AO VO2MAX EM NATAÇÃO
Abstract: 
O objectivo deste estudo é descrever o comportamento dos parâmetros biomecânicos gerais aplicados à NPD (frequência gestual – FG, distância por ciclo – DC e stroke index – SI) ao longo de um teste de Tlim-vVO2max…
http://www.fade.up.pt/rpcd/_arquivo/artigos_soltos/vol.4_nr.2/09.pdf (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2003 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Time limit and VO2 slow component at intensities corresponding to VO2max in swimmers
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to measure, in swimming pool conditions and with high level swimmers, the time to exhaustion at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption…
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14598193 (direct PDF)

 

Date: 2003 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: EFFECTS OF STROKING PARAMETERS CHANGES ON TIME TO EXHAUSTION
Abstract: 
The aim of this study is to assess the technical modifications under constrained swimming during time to exhaustion tests (TTE)…
(direct PDF)

 

Date: 2002 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: 2D-FT-IR spectrometry: a new tool for the analysis of stress-induced plasma content changes

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to apply two-dimensional (2D) correlation Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to sets of plasma spectra obtained during a physical exercise. Seven male swimmers performed a maximal 400 m test in a 25 m swimming pool…
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924203103000523

 

Date: 2002 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Time limit at vVO2max and VO2max slow component in swimming
Abstract: 
The purpose of this study was to measure the TLim-vVO2max and to verify the existence of an oxygen uptake slow component (O2SC) in swimming, on swimming-pool conditions, as it was observed for Demarie et al. (2001) in flume swimming for pentathletes…
(direct PDF)

Date: 2001 (“GBK-Pacer TAR 1.1“)
Title: Comparison of Continuos and Intermittent Incremental Protocols for Direct VO2max Assessment

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare two incremental protocols for VO2max assessment and minimum swimming velocity that elicits VO2max…
http://books.google.pt/books?id=Q-Uwf3rwyF0C&lpg=PA314&ots=BSFJx-IW1a&dq=GBK%20Pacer&hl=pt-PT&pg=PA314#v=onepage&q=GBK%20Pacer&f=false

 

 

 

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